Polypeptides generally refer to a class of compounds formed by dehydration and condensation of 3-50 α-amino acids. According to different sources, they can be roughly divided into three categories, namely, extracted polypeptides (bone peptides), chemically synthesized polypeptides (exenatide) and Gene recombinant polypeptide (liraglutide). The advantages of peptide drugs are strong druggability, high activity, good specificity, relatively weak toxic reactions, not easy to accumulate, and less drug cross-reactions.
Human exploration of peptide drugs can be traced back to the early 20th century. The invention of solid-phase synthetic peptide technology in the 1950s provided the possibility for the industrialization of peptide synthesis. Peptides began to be used in clinical practice one after another. Up to now, more than 200 peptide drugs have been approved for marketing, and the global peptide drug market size in 2019 was US$28.15 billion. According to QYResearch statistics, if the peptide drug market grows at a compound annual growth rate of 7.9% in the future, its market size will reach US$49.5 billion in 2027, with huge room for growth.
There is still a huge unmet therapeutic need in the peptide drug market. As a new type of drug, peptide drugs have been approved for marketing in the world far less than small molecule drugs, but they have increasingly become one of the hot spots of new drug research and development in the world, such as Pfizer, Merck, Roche, Eli Lilly, Novartis, Alpha Large multinational pharmaceutical companies such as Novi and Bayer have increased their investment in the research and development of peptide drugs through acquisitions or mergers.
Polypeptide drugs combine the advantages of small molecule drugs and macromolecular protein drugs, and are suitable for the treatment of some complex diseases that are difficult to cure with small molecule drugs. It has become one of the most promising drugs at present.
At the same time, the average research and development speed of peptide drugs is faster than other chemical innovative drugs, and the druggability is high; in terms of amino acid composition, with the maturity of peptide synthesis technology, molecules composed of more than 50 amino acids can currently be synthesized; more and more The peptide targets of 100% have been applied and developed. With the deepening of basic research, more and more peptide drug targets or receptors will be discovered.
As a segment of the drug market, peptides have been widely used in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of tumors, hepatitis, diabetes, AIDS and other diseases.
In recent years, some companies have performed strongly in the peptide drug market with innovative drug molecules and mechanisms of action, and maintained double-digit growth rates. This shows that in the future, only companies that develop innovative formulations and delivery methods can have a place in this field.
The creation of new peptide drugs, as a new field of new drug creation, currently has bottlenecks such as the lack of source of lead compounds for innovative peptide drugs and the backward screening mechanism of natural peptides. Deeply excavating, extracting, and utilizing the functional components of animal toxins to establish an active peptide molecule library is a hot spot in the discovery and development of innovative drugs in the world.