As a professional peptide synthesis supplier in China, we provide a variety of modified histones catalog products. Customized synthesis of modified histones, from ug to g with 70% to 99% purity, can also be made according to your requirements. Modified histones can be applied to nucleosome assembly and the subsequent study of biochemical function and structure.
Histones are proteins that condense and package DNA neatly into chromosomes. Different types of histone modifications affect different processes in the cell such as the activation/ inactivation of transcription, chromosome packaging, DNA damage and DNA repair. The modification of histones is an important post-translational process that plays a key role in gene expression. Histone modifications impact gene expression by changing the structure of chromatin or through the recruitment of histone modifiers.
Histones pack DNA into structures called nucleosomes, to fit the DNA molecule into the nucleus. Each of these nucleosomes has two subunits, each comprising the core histone H2A protein, histone H2B protein, histone H3 protein and histone H4 peptide, and a linker histone called H1 that acts as a stabilizer.
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Histone modifications can be applied to nucleosome assembly and the subsequent study of biochemical function and structure.
Common histone modifications include methylation of lysine and arginine, acetylation of lysine, phosphorylation of threonine and serine, and sumoylation, biotinylation, and ubiquitylation of lysine. Posttranslational modifications such as acetylation of core histones regulate gene expression, thus altering protein function and regulation. Histone H3 protein is primarily acetylated at lysines 9, 14, 18, and 23 and has a theoretical molecular weight of 15 kDa. Acetylation at lysine 9 and 14 appears to control histone deposition, chromatin assembly and active transcription. Methylation of arginine residues within histone H3 has also been linked to transcription regulation. Histone H3 protein has been linked to various types of cancer as a biomarker through the aberrant expression of histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes and changes to chromatins.